Spectrum Journal of Innovation, Reforms and Development 2023-01-28T05:57:31+00:00 Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Spectrum Journal of Innovation, Reforms and Development</strong> provides the opportunity to the authors to publish their original research articles in Multidisciplinary field. <strong>Spectrum Journal of Innovation, Reforms and Development</strong> is an open access peer reviewed monthly journal. The journal is refereed and follows the ethics and practices of ethical open access publishing. All the manuscripts received for publication passes through extensive double blind peer review process. The journal covers the multidisciplinary areas of Engineering, Technology, Management, Sciences and Humanities. Authors can submit their original manuscripts for peer review.</p> <p><strong>Frequency of Publication:</strong> Monthly</p> <p><strong>Acceptance Notification:</strong> 45 Days</p> <p><strong>Languages:</strong> English and German</p> <p><strong>ISSN (Online):</strong> <span lang="EN-US">2751-1731</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-US"><strong>JIF:</strong> 7.255</span></p> BRITISH ESPIONAGE IN AFGHANISTAN IN THE 19TH CENTURY 2023-01-07T17:46:51+00:00 Riskulov Shakhjakhan Narmakhamatovich Prof. J.Kh. Ismailova <p>In this article, the objectives of spies, ambassadors and missions sent by the British East India Company to the territory of Afghanistan in the first half of the 19th century, their geopolitical activities in the region, the state structure of Afghanistan, the form of government, relations with neighboring countries, Afghanistan The topography of Afghanistan, the economic, political and social situation of the Afghan people, their customs, traditions, lifestyle, diversity of nationalities, the specific characteristics of this period are described. Also, at the end of the thirties of the 19th century, how the British colony carried out military-political and diplomatic preparations for the invasion of Afghanistan. what sources, political and economic conditions of the regions are carefully studied.</p> 2023-01-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Spectrum Journal of Innovation, Reforms and Development CONCEPT AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF THE PRESIDENCY AND PARLIAMENTARISM IN NEW UZBEKISTAN (POLITICAL SCIENCE) 2023-01-06T14:29:03+00:00 Kamoliddin Yusupov <p>Many politicians recognize the political responsibility of the government before Parliament as the main principle of the existence of Parliamentarism. The strengthening of the Institute of Parliamentarism as a political system in the following years the president of the Republic of Uzbekistan Sh. We can clearly notice in the appeal of Mirziyov to the Chamber of the Oliy Majlis. The concern, which is recognized as a development strategy, is significant in that issues of further reform and democratization of paramentarism have taken an important place. This article analyzes conceptual views and views aimed at increasing the role of Parliament in the management of state and society, and examines issues of improving the activities of Parliament in the future.</p> 2023-01-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ADDITIVES FOR IMPROVING THE PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CLAYDITE CONCRETE 2023-01-06T14:33:01+00:00 Sattorov Z.M., Otajonov O.A., Isoyev Y.A. <p>This article discusses a way to improve some properties of ceramsite concrete, research when adding a gypsum-cement-pozzolanic binder based on magnesia cement and phosphorus-slag binder to it, an analysis of the physical and technical characteristics for promising use in construction.</p> 2023-01-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 PARENTAL COOPERATION IN INCLUSION OF HEARING IMPAIRED CHILDREN IN INCLUSIVE EDUCATION 2023-01-06T14:37:23+00:00 B. Q. Subanova <p>A child grows up in a family, and from the first years of his life, he learns from the family everything that is characteristic of the family, good and bad, and learns social norms, norms of relationships between people. The family is the source and intermediary link in the transfer of social and historical experience to the child, primarily in the experience of emotional and business relationships between people. Taking this into account, we can rightly assume that the family was and will be the most important institution for raising and socializing a child in a healthy peer environment.</p> 2023-01-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 THE IMPORTANCE AND ROLE OF APPLICATION OF DIGITAL MARKETING STRATEGIES IN THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM 2023-01-06T18:45:30+00:00 Erkinova Nilufar Toxir qizi <p>Time fast in development foundation being coming system this digital is an activity . This in the article digital activity marketing system with directly depends without apply through country development basis considered education system high in paces progressive to reach effect doer factors and education in the field interstate competitiveness level in raising adding contribution analysis , society development and economic and social stability in providing reflection which role to the discussion is placed and to them solution as from high school from beginning to middle special and higher education in systems done increase possible has been digital marketing strategies application will be done .</p> 2023-01-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 PLANT SPECIES INCLUDED IN THE “RED BOOK " OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN IN THE FLORA OF THE ZAMIN AND NUROTA STATE RESERVE 2023-01-09T02:47:36+00:00 Azimova Dilnoz Ergashevna, Sharipova Mohistara Xamdam qizi, Xushnazarova Nurpari Dilshodjon qizi <p>This article provides information about plant species included in the "Red Book" of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the flora of the Zomin and Nurota State Reserves.</p> 2023-01-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Spectrum Journal of Innovation, Reforms and Development DEFINITION OF THE CONCEPT OF "CULTURE" AND ITS SCIENTIFIC FOUNDATIONS 2023-01-10T08:43:06+00:00 Ibodulla Kungirov <p>In this article, the emergence of the concept of culture, the definitions given by different scientists in different periods are analytically described on a scientific basis. In addition, special attention is paid to the perception of culture as a phenomenon, the importance of laws that directly affect its development, and issues related to the management of culture based on them. The theoretical foundations of the term "culture" are objectively approached and corresponding scientific and creative conclusions are given.</p> 2023-01-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 THE STATE OF NEUROPEPTIDE-CYTOKINE STATUS IN ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE 2023-01-10T17:35:28+00:00 Khusainova Munira Alisherovna, Yarmakhammadov Usmon Kulmuxammatovich, Eshmamatova Fayyoza Boymamatovna, Shamsutdinov Asadbek Shokirovich <p>The spread of metabolic syndrome (MS) in developed countries, which, according to WHO experts, assumed the nature of a pandemic in the XXI century, contributes to the increase in the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). MS is currently considered a kind of cluster of risk factors for atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Since the main diagnostic sign of MS is abdominal type of obesity, it is natural to assume that if it is present, certain clinical and pathogenetic features should be revealed in patients with coronary heart disease. By a well - known analogy with phenotypes Currently, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease can be considered a special phenotype of coronary heart disease against the background of abdominal obesity. A decrease in the production of endorphins is accompanied by an increase in the activity of the sympathetic system, an increase in the production of cortisol by the adrenal glands, stimulation of gluconeogenesis, increased synthesis of triacylglycerols and lipogenesis, which creates conditions for the potentiation of atherogenesis.</p> 2023-01-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 THE MAIN METHODS OF ENSURING THE REGULARITY OF THE INTERESTS OF THE TEENAGE TAEKWONDO PLAYERS IN TRAINING 2023-01-11T18:32:37+00:00 Polatov L. A. Razzakova Mushtari <p>In this article, I explained about the methods used to make teenagers who practice Taekwondo WT more interested in training processes. These methods are scientifically based and determined by experienced experts. If teenage taekwondo players are trained based on these methods, their interest in regular training will increase. In this process, the athlete must have the will and desire. It is not an exaggeration to say that this situation, that is, the athlete's desire to move forward, ensures that he regularly participates in any difficult and strenuous training process.</p> 2023-01-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 EFFICIENCY OF IMPROVING THE CREATIVE ACTIVITY OF THE FUTURE PRIMARY EDUCATIONAL TEACHER IN THE PROCESS OF PROFESSIONAL TRAINING 2023-01-17T12:04:32+00:00 Baltamuratova Aksungul Perdebaevna <p>The article describes the results of a study on improving the creative activity of the future primary school teacher in the process of professional training.</p> 2023-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 BIOGEOGRAPHY OF THE SPECIES OF THE EREMURUS L. SPECIES INCLUDED IN THE RED BOOK, THE SIGNIFICANCE IN THE NATIONAL ECONOMY AND PROPAGATION METHODS 2023-01-23T14:53:58+00:00 Ne’matova Mokhinur Ne’ Iskandarova Yulduzoy Nizamitdinovna Shakhnoza Doniyorova Mokhira Halkuzieva <p>The article provides information on the importance of Eremurus L. species in the national economy and the biogeography of the species included in the Red Book.</p> 2023-01-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS METHODS OF GUM RETRACTION IN ORTHOPEDIC DENTISTRY 2023-01-28T05:51:20+00:00 Egamov Sheroz Anvarovich, Burxonova Zarafruz Qobilovna <p>In modern orthopedic dentistry, the display of the features of the formed stump of the prepared tooth, in particular, the ledge line, is a necessary condition for high-quality restoration. We performed gum retraction in 40 patients aged 21 to 53 years, using traditional and modern methods. Retraction threads were used, the impregnation of which includes various chemical compounds, as well as pastes for gum retraction. The results are considered from the point of view of the physicochemical properties of the means used, the quality of the impressions obtained, the atraumaticity during retraction and the effect on the general somatic state of the patient’s body. The results were recorded using a multifunctional laser diagnostic complex “LAKK-M” and an electronic tonometer. The quality of the impressions was assessed visually. We made conclusions about the advantages and disadvantages of the systems used, their impact on the general dental status of patients.</p> 2023-01-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF RETRACTION THREADS ON THE DEGREE OF GINGI RECESSION 2023-01-28T05:57:31+00:00 Egamov Sheroz Anvarovich, Burxonova Zarafruz Qobilovna <p>Gingival retraction is a critical procedure necessary to obtain a more accurate impression in the manufacture of indirect restorations. The correct expansion of the periodontal sulcus remains one of the most critical procedures. In this regard, it is necessary to choose such retraction threads and retraction techniques that would minimize tissue trauma and would eliminate irreversible loss of soft tissues in height. Gingival retraction was first described in 1941 by Thompson. Now the dental market presents a large number of materials for this procedure, the leading place among which is occupied by retraction threads.</p> 2023-01-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023